Monthly Archives: February 2010

Receiving static routes through DHCP in Fedora 12

So, today I had this very simple problem – to add static route to a certain network on my laptop 🙂 It really is as simple as:

ip route add network/mask via gateway

But as I’m quite lazy, to add this every time I need access to that network (the laptop is using NetworkManager + DHCP), I’ve decided to push this config through the DHCP server.

Here started the funny part – it seems that at this point this is not so trivial and you need to make modifications to BOTH the server and the client.

The Server

Let’s start with the server as this was the easy part. The only thing that is needed there is to add an DHCP option 121. In my case, as I’m using dnsmasq, this was the relevant option that should be added in /etc/dnsmasq.conf:


This option defines all classless static routes that will be advertised by the DHCP server. If you need more than one route, the above can be changed like this:


The Client

Now let’s go on the client side. There seems to be ALLOT of misunderstandings between NetworkManager and dhclient configurations. I took me quite a lot of time to figure it out, where what should be changed in order the NetworkManager to get the proper configuration from dhclient.

The first thing that should be done is to inform dhclient that you need this DHCP option 121 requested from the server. In order this  configuration to be picked up from NetworkManager also, you’ll have to edit (most probably create) /etc/dhclient-eth0.conf, where eth0 is the interface where the static routes should be added:

option classless-routes code 121 = array of unsigned integer 8;
script "/usr/local/sbin/dhclient-script-networkmanager";
also request classless-routes;

Note, that adding this config to /etc/dhclient.conf didn’t work for me. NM picked the config after the file was moved to /etc/dhclient-eth0.conf.

So now, the server is ready to send static routes, the client is ready and is hopefully at this point receiving these routes. But, but this by itself does not do anything to modify the routing table. You’ll need to add /etc/dhcp/dhcp-exit-hook file for dhclient, that will parse the DHCP option 121. I found how this could be done here on this blog. You can copy the file from there, or below here:

# /etc/dhcp/dhclient-exit-hooks
# This file is called from /sbin/dhclient-script after a DHCP run.
# parse_option_121:
# @argv: the array contents of DHCP option 121, separated by spaces.
# @returns: a colon-separated list of arguments to pass to /sbin/ip route

function parse_option_121() {
while [ $# -ne 0 ]; do
# Is the destination a multicast group?

if [ $1 -ge 224 -a $1 -lt 240 ]; then

# Parse the arguments into a CIDR net/mask string
if [ $mask -gt 24 ]; then
shift; shift; shift; shift
elif [ $mask -gt 16 ]; then
shift; shift; shift
elif [ $mask -gt 8 ]; then
shift; shift

# Read the gateway
shift; shift; shift; shift
# Multicast routing on Linux
#  - If you set a next-hop address for a multicast group, this breaks with Cisco switches
#  - If you simply leave it link-local and attach it to an interface, it works fine.

if [ $multicast -eq 1 ]; then
temp_result="$destination dev $interface"
temp_result="$destination via $gateway dev $interface"

if [ -n "$result" ]; then
echo "$result"

function modify_routes() {
for route in $route_list; do
unset IFS
/sbin/ip route $action $route
unset IFS

if [ "$reason" = "BOUND" -o "$reason" = "REBOOT" -o "$reason" = "REBIND" -o "$reason" = "RENEW" ]; then

# Delete old routes, if they exist
if [ -n "$old_classless_routes" ]; then
modify_routes delete "$(parse_option_121 $old_classless_routes)"

# Add new routes, if they exist...
if [ -n "$new_classless_routes" ]; then
modify_routes add "$(parse_option_121 $new_classless_routes)"

Next you’ll need to modify the dhclient dhclient-script, so that the NetworkManager actually executes the hooks defined in /etc/dhcp/dhclient-exit-hooks. The information was found on this blog. I’ve modified the script found on that blog so that it would work on Fedora 12. Put this file in /usr/local/sbin/dhclient-script-networkmanager (If you’ve noticed we’ve already modified the dhclient-eth0.conf file and instructed the dhclient to use this script instead of the default one located in /sbin/dhclient-script):


# dhclient-script for Linux. Dan Halbert, March, 1997.
# Updated for Linux 2.[12] by Brian J. Murrell, January 1999.
# Modified for Debian.  Matt Zimmerman and Eloy Paris, December 2003
# Modified to remove useless tests for antiquated kernel versions that
# this doesn't even work with anyway, and introduces a dependency on /usr
# being mounted, which causes cosmetic errors on hosts that NFS mount /usr
# Andrew Pollock, February 2005
# Modified to work on point-to-point links. Andrew Pollock, June 2005
# Modified to support passing the parameters called with to the hooks. Andrew Pollock, November 2005
# The alias handling in here probably still sucks. -mdz

run_hook() {
local script="$1"
local exit_status
shift       # discard the first argument, then the rest are the script's

if [ -f $script ]; then
. $script "$@"

if [ -n "$exit_status" ] && [ "$exit_status" -ne 0 ]; then
logger -p daemon.err "$script returned non-zero exit status $exit_status"

run_hookdir() {
local dir="$1"
local exit_status
shift       # See run_hook

if [ -d "$dir" ]; then
for script in $(ls -1 $dir); do
run_hook $script "$@" || true

return $exit_status

# Must be used on exit.   Invokes the local dhcp client exit hooks, if any.
exit_with_hooks() {

# Source the documented exit-hook script, if it exists
if ! run_hook /etc/dhcp/dhclient-exit-hooks "$@"; then

# Now run scripts in the Debian-specific directory.
if ! run_hookdir /etc/dhcp/dhclient-exit-hooks.d "$@"; then

exit $exit_status

# The action starts here
# Invoke the local dhcp client enter hooks, if they exist.
run_hook /etc/dhcp/dhclient-enter-hooks
run_hookdir /etc/dhcp/dhclient-enter-hooks.d

exit_with_hooks 0
return $exit_status

Finally, if you are running SELinux like me, you’ll need to change the security context of the file, so that the dhclient could execute it:

chcon -t dhcpc_exec_t /usr/local/sbin/dhclient-script-networkmanager

And thats all – you done and good go to 🙂

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Bulgarian localization for Maemo5 Fremantle: Part2


най-накрая ми остана малко свободно време за да напиша какво се случва около проекта който започнах, свързан с локализацията на интефейса на Nokia N900 на български.

Първо и може би най-важно – успях с помощта на firstfan, да прехвърля проекта в един по-общ проект свързан с превода на Maemo, който се казва n900-extra-translations. Така че вече не се чувствам сам :-), а освен това и вече няма да ми се налага да се занимавам с изграждането на пакети. Което не означава, че не се налага да се занимавам с отстраняване на бъгове свързани с тези пакети. В този ред на мисли вече няма да публикувам нови пакети на сайта на проекта който първоначално стартирах в, но ще продължа да поддържам актуално git хранилището с преводите които правя във връзка с проекта.

Новите пакети могат да бъдат намерени в extras-devel (още едно предимство) под името N900-l18n-bg_BG.

Алтернативен вариант е просто да свалите някой от публикуваните .deb файлове, препоръчително е последната актуална версия, и да я инсталирате наръка през X Terminal.

В момента работя над превода на пощенския клиент (aka Modest) и въобще приложенията които ползвам най-често.

В следващите дни когато имам отново време, ще се опитам накратко да опиша какво трябва да се има превид когато се прави превод (поне моята гледна точка 🙂 и как може лесно да се включите в превеждането на останата част на интерфейса.

За финал няколко снимки с локализираната версия на Maemo.

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